Zhao T-Z, Zou S-P,
Knapp PE (2007):
The authors exposed mouse neurons or astrocytes in primary cultures
to a GSM cell phone at 1900 MHz for 2 hours. The opened phone was placed
over an uncovered petri dish. Comparisons of gene levels in unexposed
control cells were made with those seen with different modes of the
phone i.e. "stand-by" and "on". Several genes
were up-regulated in the neuron cultures in both stand-by and on modes.
Several were also up-regulated in the astrocyte cultures, but only
in the on mode.
The method of exposure
in this experiment was very simplistic. No measures of SAR levels
were made, and there does not even appear to have been any measurements
of temperature in the experiment. The authors admit in their discussion
that "the induction may result from thermal effects, non-thermal
effects, or some combination thereof".