Zhao T-Z, Zou S-P, Knapp PE (2007):
The authors exposed mouse neurons or astrocytes in primary cultures
to a GSM cell phone at 1900 MHz for 2 hours. The opened phone was
placed over an uncovered petri dish. Comparisons of gene levels
in unexposed control cells were made with those seen with different
modes of the phone i.e. "stand-by" and "on".
Several genes were up-regulated in the neuron cultures in both
stand-by and on modes. Several were also up-regulated in the astrocyte
cultures, but only in the on mode.
of exposure in this experiment was very simplistic. No measures
of SAR levels were made, and there does not even appear to have
been any measurements of temperature in the experiment. The authors
admit in their discussion that "the induction
may result from thermal effects, non-thermal effects, or some combination