Weisbrot D, Lin H, Ye L, Blank M, et al. (2003)
The authors used the fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) for this study. They had previously studied the effects of extremely low frequency fields on Dm, and in this study they assessed the effect of radiofrequency fields.
The RF fields were produced by a GSM 1900 MHz cell phone. The flies were exposed for 60 minutes twice daily for 10 days. Pupae and adult flies were counted daily. Protein was extracted from larvae for analyses of hsp 70 levels, binding activity of SRE, and phosphorylation of ELK-1. SRE (serum response element) is a regulatory sequence in cell metabolism, and ELK-1 is a nuclear transcription factor. The SAR was approximately 1.4 W/kg.
There were significant increases in hsp 70 (3.6 fold), SRE (3.7 fold), and ELK-1 phosphorylation (3.9 fold), compared to sham readings. When an MP12 device was added, these increases were not so marked. This device has no effect on the ELF frequencies but did have an effect on the RF frequencies. This suggests that the less marked increases in the biological changes with the MP 12 device, compared with those seen with the unaltered phone, must have been due to the RFR being altered. In turn, this suggests that the RFR had a part to play in the observed changes.
In addition to the above changes, it was observed that there were increased numbers of Dm offspring produced by the RFR compared to sham exposure.