Authors
Prisco M G, Nasta F, Rosado MM, Lovisolo GA, Marino C,Pioli C. (2008). Effects of GSM-Modulated Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields on Mouse Bone Marrow Cells. Radiat. Res. 170, 803–810.

Background
In adult bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into all immune cells to protect against pathogens. Toxic compounds (benzene, pesticides, and metals) and ionizing radiation can affect differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells into functionally mature immune cells. Many studies have examined the potential harmful effects of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic-field exposure on immune cells with the majority of those studies reporting no significant health effects from RF-field exposures.  However, some studies did report adverse health effects.

Objective
The current study evaluates the functional data on bone marrow cells from mice exposed to GSM signals to colonize lymphatic organs generating mature T and B lymphocytes.

Method
Lethally X-irradiated mice were transplanted with bone marrow cells from RF-field exposed and relevant control mice. Group of mice were exposed whole body to an average SAR of 2 W/kg, 2 h/day, 5days/week. Exposure was conducted in traverse electromagnetic (TEM) cells which was designed to ensure a uniform exposure frequency of 900 MHz. This exposure frequency is similar to the far-field exposure (e.g. base station source). Twenty-four hours after the last exposure, animals were killed by cervical dislocation. Bone marrow cells were harvested from individual cage control, sham-exposed and RF-field mice. The extracted bone marrow from RF exposed and control group mice were injected into recipient mice that have been whole-body irradiated with a lethal dose of 9 Gy of X rays. Each group of donor mice (consisted of 8 mice) was transplanted into two recipient mice within 1 hour after X-irradiation. Three and 6 weeks after bone marrow transplantation, spleen cells and thymocytes from transplanted mice were collected and examined for cellular proliferation and differentiation.

Results
The results showed no differences in the numbers of nucleated bone marrow cells from the control versus, sham exposed and RF irradiated groups. Three and 6 weeks after bone marrow transplantation, data showed that bone marrow cells from cage control, sham-exposed and RF-field-exposed mice were equally able to colonize thymus and generate functionally mature single positive cells. The number of T-cell and B-cells in recipient mice spleens reconstituted with bone marrow cells from RF-filed-exposed mice appeared to be lower (but not statistically significative) than in the spleens of mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells after bone marrow transplantation. After 6 weeks of exposure, proliferative responses in the spleens reached levels comparable with those in normal untreated mice.

Discussion and Conclusion
These results were in agreement with previous studies that showed no harmful effects of exposure to RF fields. This supports the general hypothesis that 900 MHz GSM-modulated RF radiation does not affect immune functions and indicate that a deleterious effect on the immune-hematopoietic system is unlikely. In vivo exposure to GSM-modulated 900 MHz frequency RF fields does not affect phenotypical or functional differentiation of T and B cells.


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