Malyapa RS, Ahern EW, Straube WL, et al.
These authors published three papers that measured DNA damage after exposure to electromagnetic radiation.
The first study (1997a) used the same frequency as that employed by Lai and Singh in their studies - 2450 MHz. SARs were calculated to be 0.7 and 1.9 W/kg. Two types of mammalian cells were used - human glioblastoma cells and mouse fibroblast cells. The cells were irradiated for 2 hours, or 2hours followed by incubation for 4 hours, or 4 hours followed by 24 hours incubation. No significant differences were observed between the test group and controls.
In the second study (1997b) the same types of cells were exposed to either frequency-modulated continuous-waves (FMCW) at a frequency of 835.62 MHz or to code-division multiple access (CDMA) at 845.74 MHz. The cells were exposed for varying periods up to 24 hours. The SAR was 0.6 W/kg. No significant differences were seen between the test groups and controls.
The third study (1998) attempted to replicate the studies by Lai and Singh and examined the effect of 2450 MHz continuous-wave radiation on rat brain cells. They did not confirm the observation that DNA damage is produced after 2 hours exposure to the radiation, or at 4 hours after the radiation.