Leszczynski D, Joenvaara S, Reivinen J, Kuokka R (2002)

Human endothelial cells (the cells that line blood vessels) were used in this study. They were exposed to 900 MHz pulsed radiation for 1 hour, and the effects were compared to those seen with sham exposure. The average SAR was 2 W/kg (range 1.8 to 2.5). There was more than a 3-fold increase in the number of proteins that became phosphorylated i.e. incorporated phosphorus from the culture medium. Most of these proteins were unidentified but one was identified as heat-shock protein 27 (hsp27). The phosphorylation of hsp27 was transient, and was no longer seen 1 to 4 hours after the exposure. There was also an increase in the number of hsp27 cells after RF exposure, and in the expression of p38MAPK, an enzyme that is part of the stress pathway. The effects were considered to be non-thermal.

The authors state that the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggests that cell phone radiation activates a variety of cellular pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. They hypothesize that repeated exposure to cell phone radiation could facilitate the development of brain cancer by interfering with the normal process of cell death, thus allowing abnormal cells to accumulate. They further postulate that an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability might occur. The authors, however, emphasize that further investigation is required to determine if there are health effects from cell phone radiation.

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