Lee HJ, Lee JS, Pack JK, Choi HD, Kim N, Kim SH, Lee YS. (2009). Lack of teratogenicity after combined exposure of pregnant mice to CDMA and WCDMA radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Radiat Res. 172(5):648-52.

Teratogenic potential of radiofrequency (RF) radiation at specific absorption rate (SAR) levels that lead to considerable increase in the maternal body temperature has been demonstrated in numerous studies. Most studies with non-thermal levels of RF exposure reported no teratogenic effects. Since humans can be simultaneously exposed to different RF signals, it is necessary to study potential effects of such combined exposures.

To study potential effects of combined exposure to code division multiple access (CDMA) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) RF radiation on murine fetuses.

Pregnant mice were assigned to the following groups: sham-exposed CDMA control mice (group 1); CDMA exposed mice (group 2); sham-exposed CDMA+WCDMA control mice (group 3); CDMA+WCDMA exposed mice (group 4). Whole-body exposures to CDMA (849 MHz) and WCDMA (1.95 GHz) at SAR of 2.0 W/kg were conducted for two 45 minute periods separated by a 15 minute interval, daily, throughout the gestation period (days 1-17). On gestation day 18, the mice were sacrificed; the uterine contents and ovaries were examined for the number of implantation sites, number of resorptions, sex and number of viable fetuses, fetal head and body size, external abnormalities, number of dead fetuses, fetal and placental weights. One-half of the live fetuses per litter were examined for visceral malformations and the other half – for skeletal malformations.

No significant between-group differences in rectal temperature and in any of the studied parameters were observed in these experiments.

Interpretation and Conclusion
Whole-body maternal exposure to non-thermal RF radiation, including combined CDMA and WCDMA exposure, had no observable teratogenic effects on mouse fetuses.

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