Kues et al., (1985;1992a;1992b;1999)
In the 1985 study monkeys were exposed to 2.45 GHz microwaves. Three protocols were used. One involved a once per week, 4-hour, 5-30mW/cm² exposure, repeated over time, with specular microscopic examinations performed every 2-4 weeks. A second involved a series of single 10-30 mW/cm² exposures of 4 hours separated by one or more weeks and followed each time by specular microscopic examinations. A third was employed in which four consecutive daily 4-hour exposures were performed. Sham exposures were also used.
Changes were seen in the endothelium of the cornea after a post-exposure latent period of approximately 16 to 48 hours. Pulsed microwaves with an average power density of 10 mW/cm² (equivalent to SAR of 2.6W/kg) produced these effects, while levels of 20-30 mW/cm² (SAR = 5.3 to 7.8 W/kg) with continuous wave irradiation were required to produce similar changes.
In the 1992 Bioelectromagnetics study, the authors found that pre-treating the eyes with ophthalmic drugs increased the sensitivity of the eye to RF exposure, so that effects were seen with an average SAR of 2.6 W/kg.
In the second 1992 study, Kues and Monahan found changes in the cornea, iris, and retina of monkeys after exposure to 2.45 GHz pulsed microwaves. Retinal changes were seen at a threshold SAR of 3.9 W/kg.
In the 1999 study, rabbits and monkeys were exposed to 60 GHz CW radiation at 10mW/cm². The animals either had one exposure for 8 hours or five separate exposures of 4 hours each on consecutive days. No changes could be seen in the anterior chambers of the animals' eyes as a result of the exposures.