Koyu A, Ozguner F, Yilmaz H, Uz E, Cesur G, Ozcelik N. (2009). The protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on oxidative stress in rat liver exposed to the 900 MHz electromagnetic field. Toxicol Ind Health. 25(6):429-434.

Because local heating from mobile phones is insignificant, it is unlikely that deleterious effects can be produced by thermal mechanism. Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of radiation-mediated effects. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between the production of oxygen radicals and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It has been shown in other studies that caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE) is a strong antioxidant.

The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of CAPE on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of rats exposed to the 900 MHz electromagnetic field.

A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed between 3 groups of equal size: control sham-exposed rats (group I), 900 MHz EMF exposed rats (group II), and 900 MHz EMF exposed + caffeic acid phenyl ester treated rats (group III). Exposure to EMF was applied for 1 hour a day during 30 days. Caffeic acid phenyl ester was injected daily (intraperitoneally) before the EMF exposure at a dose of 10 mM mL-1 kg-1 day-1. Liver tissue was examined for activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), xanthine oxidase (XO) and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO). LPO was assessed as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver tissues.

The activities of xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT), and the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level were significantly higher in group II than in group I (p=0.0001, p=0.0001 and p=0.003 for XO, CAT and the LPO, respectively) or in group III (p=0.0001, p= 0.003 and p=0.006, respectively). The activity of SOD and GSH-Px in group II was significantly lower than in group I (p=0.0015 and p=0.0001 for SOD and GSH-Px, respectively) or in group III (p=0.0135 and p=0.0001, respectively). The increase in group III compared to group I was statistically significant only for activities of CAT (p=0.0286) and XO (p=0.0001).

Interpretation and conclusion
These experiments have shown that exposure to 900 MHz EMF was accompanied by oxidative changes in the liver tissue. Administration of caffeic acid phenyl ester may be protective against EMF-induced hepatotoxicity.

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