Auteurs
Friedman J, Kraus S, Hauptman Y, Schiff Y, et al. (2007)

The authors investigated the immediate effect of irradiation on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, which are involved in transcription and protein stability in cells. They subjected rat or HeLa cells to RFR at cell phone frequencies (800-900 MHz) with an intensity of 0.07 mW/cm² or higher. This lower level is well below the average intensity of a cell phone, which is 0.45 mW/cm² in Israel, where the researchers work. The temperature of the experiment was controlled to normal levels.

They found that extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were rapidly activated (within seconds) in response to various frequencies and intensities. This results from an initial mediating step by NADH oxidase, which rapidly generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). These in turn activate the ERK cascade, which are one of the MAPK cascades, and can regulate a variety of physiological responses in cells and organisms

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