Flyckt VMM, Raaymakers BW, Kroeze H, Lagendijk JJW (2007):
The aim of this study was to determine SAR levels and temperature increases within a model of a human eye during RFR exposure from a dipole antenna representing a cell phone. Frequencies of 900, 1500, and 1800 MHz were used, with an output power of 1 W. A detailed anatomical equivalent of the human eye and orbit was placed in a whole-head model. The temperature rises were determined by taking the blood flow into account either by the Pennes bioheat model or by including the discrete vasculature (DIVA).
Peak SARs in the humour were 4.5, 7.7, and 8.4 W/kg for 900, 1500, and1800 MHz respectively. Averaged over the whole eyeball, the SARs were 1.7, 2.5, and 2.2 W/kg.
The maximum temperature increases in the eye during exposure were 0.22, 0.27, and 0.25°C for 900, 1500, and1800 MHz respectively, using the DIVA method. For the Pennes model, the increases were 0.19, 0.24, and 0.22°C. The peak temperature was in the anterior part of the lens for the 900 MHz frequency, in the posterior lens for the 1500, and close to the centre of the eyeball for the 1800.
The authors state: