Capri M, Scarcella E, Bianchi E, Fumelli C, et al. (2004):
These authors carried out experiments to investigate if exposure to radiofrequency fields (RFR) could affect cell death or the production of heat shock proteins (hsps). They used human blood mononuclear cells, half of which were treated with 2-deoxy-D-ribose (dRib). This substance induces cell death by producing oxidative stress. This stress also induces increased levels of heat shock proteins. The authors also measured the effect on mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which is highly correlated with the cell death process.
Three different signal modulations typical of the GSM system were applied, that are used in GSM Basic, DTX, and Talk. The frequency was 1800 MHz, and the SAR was 2 W/kg or 1.4 W/kg.
Cells, treated with dRib or untreated, were exposed or sham-exposed to RFR for 44 hours intermittently, 10 minutes on and 20 minutes off. Cells from young donors were used in experiments at all three modulations, and cells from elderly donors were used in the GSM-Talk experiment.
In all the various conditions there was no significant difference between sham-exposed and RF-exposed cells. While the cells from elderly donors tended to have slightly increased tendency to cell death parameters, but this difference was not statistically different. The cells from elderly donors did not show any added effect of the RFR.