Buttiglione M, Roca L, Montemurno E, Vitiello F, et al. (2007):

Egr-1 is a gene essential for proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Buttiglione and colleagues studied the effect of RFR exposure on Egr-1 activation by exposing human neuroblastoma cells to RFR at 900 MHz frequency, or to sham exposure, for 5, 15, 30 minutes, and 6 and 24 hours. The SAR was 1 W/kg.

RFR exposure activated Egr-1 within 5 minutes, reaching a peak at 15 minutes. At 6 hours the effect was no longer apparent. There were parallel effects on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) that are involved in the activation of Egr-1. Exposure to RFR had an anti-proliferative effect on the cells, with a significant effect at 24 hours, and also impaired cell cycle progression.

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