Participating countries were Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the UK. The principal investigators of the INTERPHONE study published a paper that provided details of the design and epidemiological methods, as well as a description of the population included in the study (Cardis et al., 2007). The population included 2,765 glioma, 2,425 meningioma, 1,121 acoustic neuroma, 109 malignant parotid gland tumour cases and 7,658 controls. The paper discussed potential recall and participation biases and their impact on the results. Others papers have also been published on (1) the validation of short term recall of mobile phone use for the Interphone study, (2) the effects of recall errors and of selection bias, (3) and the recall bias in the assessment of exposure to mobile phones from a retrospective validation study. A publication on the distribution of RF energy emitted by mobile phones in anatomical structures of the brain was also recently published in 2008(4).
Results of national studies have been published since 2004 and are summarized below in Tables (a,b,c). The combined analyses of the 13 countries participating in the INTERPHONE study have been finalized and the results are published in the International Journal of Epidemiology.
The Interphone study group is currently working on detailed analyses for future publications such as precise localization of brain tumours using 3-dimensional radiological grid, the health effect of radiofrequency exposure at the exact location of the tumor by using a gradient of radiofrequency. Determinants of mobile phone output power from a software-modified phone (SMP) study is also in preparation. Results from both the prospective and retrospective validation studies and also data obtained from the simulation study of recall and selection bias will help make any adjustment for exposure measurement errors on cancer risk related to mobile phone use.
More information can be obtained at www.iarc.fr - follow the links to "IARC Scientific Structure" and "Radiation Group".
The Tables summarise the INTERPHONE studies of brain tumours, including acoustic neuroma and tumours of the parotid gland. (For complete results of studies of brain tumours, see the main menu of "Epidemiology".)
Other Interphone publications:
The Interphone study group carried out a validation study of short-term recall of phone use (Vrijheid 2006). There were moderate to high correlations between recalled and actual use, as measured by operators or through the use of software modified phones. The authors found that there was moderate systematic error and substantial random error. The latter error would tend to reduce the power of the Interphone study to detect an increase in brain tumour risk, if one exists.
Kan and colleagues performed a meta-analysis of 9 Interphone studies published between 2000 and 2006 (Kan et al., 2007). The 9 studies included a total of 5,259 cases of primary brain tumours and 12,074 controls. There was an overall Odds ratio (OR) of 0.90 (95% CI 0.81-0.99) for cell phone use and brain tumour development. The pooled OR for cell phone users of ≥ 10 years (5 studies) was 1.25 (95% CI 1.01-1.54).
Schlehofer et al. (2007) used Interphone data to analyze potential environmental risk factors for acoustic neuroma. While there was no risk for ionizing radiation or for cell phone use, they found increased risks for persistent noise and for hay fever history.
The INTERPHONE Study Group. Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case–control study. International Journal of Epidemiology 2010. Epub ahead of print, May 18, 2010
G, Spallek J, Schuz J, Schlefor B, et al. (2006): Occupational exposure
to radio frequency/microwave radiation and the risk of brain tumours:
Interphone study group, Germany.
Cardis E, Richardson L, Deltour I, Armstrong B, and 44 others (2007): The INTERPHONE study: design, epidemiological methods, and description of the study population. Eur J Epidemiol DOI 10.1007/s10654-007-9152-z.
Cardis E, Deltour I, Mann S, Moissonnier M, Taki M,Varsier N, Wake K, Wiart J. (2008). Distribution of RF energy emitted by mobile phones in anatomical structures of the brain. Phys. Med. Biol. 53:2771–2783.
HC, Schuz J, Kosteljanetz M, Skovgard H, et al. (2004): Cellular telephone
use and risk of acoustic neuroma. Am J Epidemiol 159:277-283
SJ, Schoemaker MJ, Muir KR, Swerdlow AJ, et al. (2006): Mobile phone use
and risk of glioma in adults: case-control study. BMJ (published online
Hartikka H,Heinävaara S,Mäntylä R, Kähärä V, Kurttio P, Auvinen A. Mobile phone use and location of glioma: A case-case analysis Bioelectromagnetics Jan 13, 2009 Ahead of print.
Hours M, Montestrucq L, Arslan M, Bernard M, El Hadjimoussa H, Vrijheid M, Deltour I, Cardis E. (2007): Validation des outils utilizes pour la mesure de la consommation téléphonique mobile dans l’étude INTERPHONE en France. Environnement, Risques & Santé 6(2):101-109
Hours M, Bernard M, Montestrucq L, Arslan M, et al. (2007):
Téléphone mobile, risque de tumeurs cérébrales
et du nerf vestibulaacoustique: l'étude cas-témojns INTERPHONE
en France. (Cell phones and risk of brain and acoustic nerve tumours:
the French INTERPHONE case-control study). Revue d'Épidémiologie
et de Santé Publique 2007, doi: 10.10.16/j.respe.2007.06.002
Kan P, Simonsen SE, Lyon JL, Kestle JRW (2007): Cellular phone use and brain tumor: a meta-analysis. J Neurooncol DOI 10.1007/s11060-007-9432-1
Klaeboe L, Blaasaas KG, Tynes T (2007): Use of mobile phones in Norway
and risk of intracranial tumours. Eur J Cancer Prev 16:158-164
Lahkola A, Auvinen A, Raitanen J, Schoemaker MJ, et al. (2007): Mobile
phone use and risk of glioma in 5 North European countries. Int J Cancer
Lahkola A, Salminen T, Raitanen J, Heinävaara S, Schoemaker M, Christensen HC, Feychting M, Johansen C, Klæboe L, Lönn S, Swerdlow A, Tynes T, Auvinen A. Meningioma and mobile phone use--a collaborative case-control study in five North European countries. Int J Epidemiol. Aug 2, 2008 Ahead of print.
S, Ahlbom A, Hall P, Feychting M (2004): Mobile phone use and the risk
of acoustic neuroma. Epidemiology 15:653-659.
S, Ahlbom A, Hall P, Feychting M, et al. (2005): Long-term mobile phone
use and brain tumour risk. Amer J Epidemiol 161:526-535.
S, Ahlbom A, Christensen HC, Johansen C, et al. Mobile phone use and risk
of parotid gland tumor. Am J Epidemiol:2006;164:637-643.
Sadetzki S, Chetrit A, Jarus-Hakak A, Cardis E, Deutch Y, Duvdevani S, Zultan A, Novikov A, Freedman L, Wolf M. Cellular Phone Use and Risk of Benign and Malignant Parotid Gland Tumors—A Nationwide Case-Control Study American Journal of Epidemiology Ahead of print December 6, 2007
Schlehofer B, Schlaefer K, Blettner M, Berg G, et al. (2007): Environmental risk factors for sporadic acoustic neuroma (Interphone Study Group, Germany). Eur J Cancer 43:1741-1747.
MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Ahlbom A, Auvinen A, et al. (2005): Mobile phone use
and risk of acoustic neuroma: results of the Interphone case-control study
in five North European countries. British Journal of Cancer 2005;93:842-848.
J, Bohler E, Berg G, Schlehofer B, et al. (2006a): Cellular phones, Cordless
phones, and the risks of glioma and meningioma (Interphone study group,
Germany). Am J Epidemiol 163:512-520.
J, Bohler E, Schlehofer B, Berg K, et al. (2006c): Radiofrequency electromagnetic
fields emitted from base stations of DECT cordless phones and the risk
of glioma and meningioma (Interphone study group, Germany). Radiat Res
T, Akiba S, Kikuchi Y, Taki M, et al. Mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma
risk in Japan. Occup Environ Med: Published online 15 August 2006.
Takebayashi T, Varsier N, Kikuchi Y, Wake K, Taki M, Watanabe S, Akiba S, Yamaguchi N. Mobile phone use, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, and brain tumour: a case-control study. Br J Cancer. 2008 98(3):652-659. Epub ahead of print Feb 5 2008. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604214
Vrijheid M, Cardis E, Armstrong BK, Auvinen A, et al. (2006a): Validation of short term recall of mobile phone use for the Interphone study. Occup Environ Med 63:237-243.
Vrijheid M, Deltour I, Krewski D, Sanchez M, et al. (2006b): The effects of recall errors and of selection bias in epidemiologic studies of mobile phone use and cancer risk. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, advance online publication 14 June, 2006.
Vrijheid M, Armstrong BK, Bedard D, Brown J, Deltour E, Iavarone I, Krewski D, Lagorio S, Moore S, Richarson L, Giles G, McBride M, Parent M-E, Siemiatycki J, Cardis E. (2008): Recall bias in the assessment of exposure to mobile phones Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 1–13.
Vrijheid M, Armstrong BK, Bédard D, Brown J, Deltour I, Iavarone I, Krewski D, Lagorio S, Moore S, Richardson L, Giles GG, McBride M, Parent ME, Siemiatycki J, Cardis E.(2009). Recall bias in the assessment of exposure to mobile phones. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 19, 369–381.
Vrijheid M, Mann S, Vecchia P, Wiart J, Taki M, Ardoino L, Armstrong BK, Auvinen A, Bédard D, Berg-Beckhoff G, Brown J, Chetrit A, Collatz-Christensen H, Combalot E, Cook A, Deltour I, Feychting M, Giles GG, Hepworth SJ, Hours M, Iavarone I, Johansen C, Krewski D, Kurttio P, Lagorio S, Lönn S, McBride M, Montestruq L, Parslow RC, Sadietzki S, Schüz J, Tynes T, Woodward A, Cardis E.(2009). Determinants of mobile phone output power in a multinational study – implications for exposure assessment. Occup Environ Med. 66(10):664-71.
Vrijheid M, Richardson L, Armstrong BK, Auvinen A, Berg G, Carroll M, Chetrit A, Deltour I, Feychting M, Giles GG, Hours M, Iavarone I, Lagorio S, Lönn S, McBride M, Parent ME, Sadetzki S, Salminen T, Sanchez M, Schlehofer B, Schüz J, Siemiatycki J, Tynes T, Woodward A, Yamaguchi N, Cardis E. (2009). Quantifying the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a case-control study of mobile phone use. Ann Epidemiol 19(1):33-41.