study from five countries
latest report from the Interphone study is from the four Nordic
countries and Southeast England. It summarizes the results obtained
in the investigation of the risk of glioma in those using cell
phones. The Odds Ratio (OR)
for regular use was 0.78, and, with one exception, all other
results were not statistically significant. The exception was
for use of the phone on the same side as the tumour for 10 years
or more. This result showed an OR of 1.39, and was statistically
significant. There was a low participation rate, especially among
the controls. The authors discuss in detail the potential sources
of bias in this type of study.
more, see "Research - Epidemiology" and "Research
Programs - Interphone study".
Lahkola A, Auvinen A, Raitanen J, Schoemaker MJ, et al. (2007):
Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in 5 North European countries.
Int J Cancer 120:1769-1775.
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Summary of long-term results of cell phone epidemiological
and colleagues have written a paper that attempts to summarize
results from epidemiological studies of cell phones and the risk
of brain tumours. In general the studies suffer from small number
of cases. The authors conclude that the results “give a
consistent pattern of an increased risk for acoustic neuroma
Hardell LO, Carlberg M, Söderquist F, Hansson Mild K, et
al. (2007): Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours
- increased risk associated with use for > 10 years. Occup
Environ Med published online 4 Apr 2007; doi:10.1136/oem.2006.029751
occupation and pregnancy outcomes
, Sætre, and colleagues report a study on paternal occupational
exposure to RFR and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. They
used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway that were
linked with data on paternal occupation from the general population
census. The study included the years 1976-2005. There were very
few statistically significant results (either of increased or
decreased risk) amongst the many that were estimated. The authors
study is partly reassuring for occupationally exposed fathers".
more, see "Research - Epidemiology".
Mjøen G, Sætre DO, Lie RT, Tynes T, et al. Paternal
occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields
and risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Eur J Epidemiol 2006;21:529-535.
Go to summary>
increase in micronuclei after chronic RFR exposure in mice
study from Finland reports that chronic exposure of mice to RFR
at 902 MHz for up to 78 weeks did not produce any increase in
the number of micronuclei (a sign of chromosomal damage) in red
more, see "Research - Laboratory
- cancer studies".
Juutilainen J, Heikkinen P, Soikkeli H, Maki-Paakkanen J. Micronucleus
frequency in erythrocytes of mice after long-term exposure to
radiofrequency radiation. Int J Radiat Biol 2007, 83:213-220.
effect on cell death or cell cycle progression from RFR exposure
and colleagues at Health Canada studied the effect of 1.9 GHz
RFR exposure for 6 hours at SARs up to 10 W/kg on a variety of
biological processes. No detectable changes in cell viability,
cell cycle kinetics, incidence of apoptosis, or cytokine expression
were observed in any of the RF-exposed groups in any of the cell
lines tested, relative to the sham controls.
For more, see "Research - laboratory
- cell cycle progression" and "Research
- others - cell death"
Chauhan V, Mariampillai A, Kutzner BC, Wikins RC, et al. Evaluating
the biological effects of intermittent 1.9 GHz pulse-modulated
radiofrequency fields in a series of human-derived cell lines.
Radiat Res 2007;167:87-93.
Go to summary>
standards and risks
a recent article Barnes discusses the risks and benefits of technology
using electromagnetic radiation, and the dilemma that standards-setting
bodies face. He states that these bodies "need to take into
account both the results showing biological changes at low levels
(of exposure) and the large number of studies that do not show
any changes. Additionally they need to take into account the
benefits of having wireless communications that are used to save
lives and enhance the standard of living for a significant fraction
of the public." He suggests that the public be presented
with tables of relative risks that include levels of exposure
and other risks for comparison.
Barnes F. Setting standards in the presence of developing scientific
understanding. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 2006;25:209-215.
of epidemiological studies on base stations
methodological challenges of epidemiological studies of possible
health effects of cell phone base stations is the subject of
a recent paper in "Bioelectromagnetics". It is a summary
of a workshop that brought together scientists in relevant fields
to critically evaluate the issues. The authors emphasize that
in epidemiological studies of the possible health effects of
base stations, all relevant radiofrequency sources have to be
taken into account. Different study designs are needed for immediate,
short to medium term, and long term effects.
Neubauer G, Feychting M, Hamnerius Y, Kheifets L, et al. (2007):
Feasibility of future epidemiological studies on possible health
effects of mobile phone base stations. Bioelectromagnetics 28:224-230.
exposure and formation of reactive oxygen species
and colleagues investigated the effect of RF exposure from a
900 MHz signal, either continuous-wave or GSM-modulated, on mouse
cells, either with or without treatment of the environmental
pollutant, MX. They did not find any indication that the RF exposure
increased the production of reactive oxygen species.
more, see "Research - Others
- Free oxygen radicals".
Zeni O, Di Pietro R, d'Ambrosio G, Massa R, et al. Formation
of reactive oxygen species in L929 cells after exposure to 900
MHz RF radiation with and without co-exposure to 3'chloro-4-
(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone. Radiation Research