April & May, 2011
Moderate agreement of mobile phone use between self-report and billing record data from operators
The main objective of the pilot study was to compare self-reported use of mobile phones with operator data. A total of 891 subjects (17%) responded positively to the invitation to participate in the study. The results indicate that the agreement between self-reported and network operator data for call times decreased with the level of use among intermediate and heavy mobile phone users. The authors concluded that the agreement was moderate and also that participants frequently overestimated call time.
Heinavaara S, Tokola K, Kurttio P, Auvinen A. Validation of exposure assessment and assessment of recruitment methods for a prospective cohort study of mobile phone users (COSMOS) in Finland: a pilot study. Environ Health. Mar 8, 2011. Ahead of print.
The objective of the study stated by the authors was to determine if prenatal mobile phone use by pregnant mothers was associated with developmental delays among offspring until 18 months old. The data was collected from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and included pregnant mothers from 1996 to 2002. Developmental targets at age 6 and 18 months postpartum were determined after doing telephone interviews with the mother. Results indicate that less than 5% of children at age 6 and 18 months had cognitive, language, or motor developmental delays. The authors concluded that no evidence of an association between prenatal cell phone use and motor or cognitive/language developmental delays was found in their study.
Divan HA, Kheifets L, Olsen J. Prenatal cell phone use and developmental milestone delays among infants. Scand J Work Environ Health. Mar 14, 2011. Ahead of print.
The objective of the study was to investigate, using a retrospective case–control design, the health effect of mobile phone use on the risk of epithelial parotid gland malignancy. A total of 136 cases and 2,051 controls were recruited between 1993 and 2010 to the oral and maxillofacial surgery department. Results were obtained by using logistic analyses and indicated that, in general, cell phone use was not significantly associated with epithelial parotid gland malignancy. The authors mention that their results suggest a possible dose-response relationship of cell phone use with epithelial parotid gland malignancy and that the significance of the present results needs to be confirmed in other important prospective studies.
Duan Y, Zhang HZ, Bu RF. Correlation between cellular phone use and epithelial parotid gland malignancies. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. Apr 5, 2011. Ahead of print.
The objective of the study was to evaluate, if the results of 2 recent experiments could be attributed to radiofrequency field radiation (RFR) or to other confounding agents. In the study, at total of 29 right-handed male subjects, divided into 2 groups, had 2 standard cell phones attached to both sides of their head. Following this set-up, individuals performed a spatial working memory task; either a left-hand or a right-hand response for either left side exposure or right side exposure. Contrary to the previous studies, in this work external antennas were located far away from the subjects and connected to the cell phones. This set-up prevents any emission of RFR from the internal antenna, thus considerably reducing RFR exposure. The results indicate that, even if the external antennas were located far away from the individuals, the outcomes of this experiment were similar to previous studies. The authors concluded that their results show that some of the effects previously found could be due to confounders (Non-RFR heating; low-frequency magnetic fields originating from electric currents).
Hareuveny R, Eliyahu I, Luria R, Meiran N, Margaliot M. Cognitive effects of cellular phones: A possible role of non-radiofrequency radiation factors. Bioelectromagnetics. Apr 12, 2011. Ahead of print.
The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare changes in hearing function (inner ear and central auditory pathway) following chronic exposure to radiofrequency field (RF) from both Global System for mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) mobile phones. A total of 125 subjects who were long-term mobile phone users and 58 controls were tested for hearing function parameters. The changes in various parameters were studied in mobile-using and non-mobile-using ears of both GSM and CDMA subjects and corresponding ears of the controls to determine the effects of electromagnetic field exposure. Results indicate that GSM and CDMA users were at a significantly higher risk of having distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) absent compared to controls. Also 3 years or more of mobile phone use was determined to be a risk factor. The authors concluded that long-term and intensive GSM and CDMA mobile phone usage could potentially damage the cochlea and the auditory cortex.
Panda NK, Modi R, Munjal S, Virk RS. (2011). Auditory changes in mobile users: is evidence forthcoming? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 144(4):581-5.
The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of cell phone usage on several semen parameters. A total of 2,110 men had their semen analyzed for serum free testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL). Cell phone use was recorded and the subjects were divided into either a cell phone use group or a non-user group. Results indicated that a significant difference was found in sperm morphology between both groups. No significant difference was found for FSH and PRL parameters. The authors concluded that their results indicated that cell phone use affects negatively sperm quality.
Gutschi T, Mohamad Al-Ali B, Shamloul R, Pummer K, Trummer H. Impact of cell phone use on men's semen parameters. Andrologia. Mar 28, 2011. Ahead of print.
The objective of the study was to assess whether pulse-modulation frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the range of sleep spindles could affect sleep EEG. In the study, 30 young healthy men were exposed each week for 30 minutes just prior to going to sleep to 3 different exposure scenarios; (1)900-MHz RF EMF, pulse modulated at 14Hz, (2) 217Hz, and (3) sham control scenario. Results indicate that electroencephalographic power was higher for rapid eye movement sleep (2nd episode) following the 14-Hz pulse-modulated scenario (in the spindle frequency range). No effects due to exposure scenarios were found to affect cognitive performance. The authors concluded that their results are further evidence that pulse-modulated RF-EMF changes brain physiology. But, timing of the effect is different in each study.
Schmid MR, Loughran SP, Regel SJ, Murbach M, Bratic Grunauer A, Rusterholz T, Bersagliere A, Kuster N, Achermann P. Sleep EEG alterations: effects of different pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields. J Sleep Res. Apr 12, 2011. Ahead of print.
The objective of the validation study was to determine the variability of individual radiofrequency field (RF) exposure across days of the week. Data was provided from an existing population-based study and a random sample of 34 individuals who had a personal exposure meter for seven consecutive days. The results indicate that statistically significant variability of individual RF exposure across days of the week was found. But, differences that were found were relatively small. The authors concluded that their work suggests that day of the week could be a good predictor for personal RF exposure but that larger studies are needed to reproduce their results.
Viel JF, Tiv M, Moissonnier M, Cardis E, Hours M. (2011). Variability of radiofrequency exposure across days of the week: A population-based study. Environ Res. 111(4):510-3.
This paper studies the effects of 2.45 GHz electromagnetic (EM) exposure on oxidant-antioxidant changes in the heart of rats and the possible protective effects of L-carnitine and selenium. Results show that the 2.45 GHz EM exposure caused oxidative stress in the heart of rats. There was a protective effect of selenium and L-carnitine.
Türker Y, Nazıroğlu M, Gümral N, Celik O, Saygın M, Cömlekçi S, Flores-Arce M. Selenium and L: -Carnitine Reduce Oxidative Stress in the Heart of Rat Induced by 2.45-GHz Radiation from Wireless Devices. Biol Trace Elem Res. Mar 1, 2011. Ahead of print.
This study assessed oxidative damage by investigating lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA), nitric oxide (NOx) and glutathione (GSH) levels which are the indicators of tissue toxicity. Results showed that pulse-modulated RF radiation causes oxidative injury in liver, lung, testis and heart tissues mediated by lipid peroxidation, increased level of NOx and suppression of antioxidant defense mechanism.
Esmekaya MA, Ozer C, Seyhan N. (2011). 900 MHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress on heart, lung, testis and liver tissues. Gen Physiol Biophys. 30(1):84-9.
Microwaves may promote apoptosis in A549 cells
This study investigates the effect of microwaves on inducing apoptosis in the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 cells, aiming to identify its effect on apoptosis. It was concluded that microwaves can promote apoptosis in A549 cells. The effect depends on the duration and dosage of microwave radiation.
Song XL, Wang CH, Hu HY, Yu C, Bai C. (2011). Microwave induces apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cell line. Chin Med J (Engl). 124(8):1193-8.
This study investigates the influence of cell cycle on the adaptive response (AR) induced by the exposure of human blood lymphocytes to radiofrequency fields (RF). The results confirmed the observations reported in a previous investigation where AR was observed in human blood lymphocytes exposed to adaptive dose of RF in S-phase of the cell cycle and further suggested that the timing of exposure of RF is important to elicit AR.
Sannino A, Zeni O, Sarti M, Romeo S, Reddy SB, Belisario MA, Prihoda TJ, Vijayalaxmi, Scarfì MR. Induction of adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields: Influence of cell cycle. Int J Radiat Biol. May 11, 2011. Ahead of print.
This study examined the protozoan Paramecium caudatum under normal conditions versus aside a switched-on GSM telephone (900 MHz; 2 Watts). Exposed individuals moved more slowly and more sinuously than usual, their physiology was affected.
Cammaerts MC, Debeir O, Cammaerts R. (2011). Changes in Paramecium caudatum (Protozoa) near a switched-on GSM telephone. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(1):57-66.
Possible carcinogenic effects of radiofrequency fields
This study investigates the effects of combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA radiofrequency fields (RF) on lymphoma development in a lymphoma mouse model. No differences were found in final survival, lymphoma incidence, and splenomegaly incidence between sham-exposed and radiofrequency field exposed mice.
Lee HJ, Jin YB, Lee JS, Choi SY, Kim TH, Pack JK, Choi HD, Kim N, Lee YS. Lymphoma development of simultaneously combined exposure to two radiofrequency signals in AKR/J mice. Bioelectromagnetics. Mar 23, 2011. Ahead of print.
This paper studied the acute effects of microwave exposure from GSM mobile phones in rats, using 900MHz radiation at intensity similar to mobile phone emissions. Results reveal that c-fos and glial markers were triggered by the combined stress of non-thermal irradiation and the toxic effect of picrotoxin on cerebral tissues.
Carballo-Quintás M, Martínez-Silva I, Cadarso-Suárez C, Alvarez-Figueiras M, Ares-Pena FJ, López Martín E. A study of neurotoxic biomarkers, c-fos and GFAP after acute exposure to GSM radiation at 900MHz in the picrotoxin model of rat brains. Neurotoxicology. Apr 16, 2011. Ahead of print.
The purpose of this study is to review the responses of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in different frequency ranges, and characterize the properties of DNA as an antenna. DNA appears to possess the two structural characteristics of fractal antennas, electronic conduction and self-symmetry. These properties contribute to greater reactivity of DNA with EMF in the environment.
Blank M, Goodman R. (2011). DNA is a fractal antenna in electromagnetic fields. Int J Radiat Biol. 87(4):409-15.
The objective of the paper was to review studies published after 1998 on the biological effects of modulated radiofrequency fields (RF). The authors reviewed papers which compared the effects of modulated and un-modulated (continuous wave) RF fields and also looked at the effects of various types of modulations. Results of the review indicate that the majority of studies after 1998 did not report any modulation-specific effects. But the authors mention that there are some exceptions such as health effects from amplitude-modulated RF fields on the human central nervous system.
Juutilainen J, Höytö A, Kumlin T, Naarala J. Review of possible modulation-dependent biological effects of radiofrequency fields. Bioelectromagnetics. Apr 7, 2011. Ahead of print.
Morgan LL. Author's reply to: Occupational and residential exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of brain tumours in adults: A case-control study in Gironde, France. Int J Cancer. Mar 11, 2011. Ahead of print.
For more see “Research – epidemiological – cell phone studies”
For more see “Research – epidemiological – cell phone studies”