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Februro 2011

Cardis E, Sadetzki S. Indications of possible brain-tumour risk in mobile-phone studies: should we be concerned?Occup Environ Med. Ahead of print. Jan 24, 2011.

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Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K. Re-analysis of risk for glioma in relation to mobile telephone use: comparison with the results of the Interphone international case-control study. Int J Epidemiol. Dec 17, 2010. Ahead of print.

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Czerninski R, Zini A, Sgan-Cohen HD. (2011). Risk of parotid malignant tumors in Israel (1970-2006). Epidemiology. 22(1):130-1.

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Effects of mobile phone exposure on brain bioelectric activity in patients during craniotomy.

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted from mobile phone on bioelectric activity in response to acoustic stimulation. A patient-based clinical population seen from January 2009 to March 2010 in Verona, Italy was the source of subjects. Seven patients diagnosed with Ménière's disease and undergoing retrosigmoid vestibular neurectomy were exposed to a mobile phone placed over the craniotomy for 5 minutes. Five patients undergoing the same surgical procedure were selected as the control group. Results indicate that no significant changes were found with V wave latency of the auditory brainstem responses (ABR) recordings with EMF exposure or sham exposure. During EMF exposure, a decrease in compound nerve action potentials (CNAPs) amplitude and an increase in latency were observed in all patients. Although it’s been shown that mobile phone use can trigger brain evoked potentials and induce CNAPs modifications, the pathophysiology effect of mobile phone EMF exposure needs to be studied further. The authors discussed the limitations of their approach and noted that more studies with larger number of patients are needed to validate their findings.

Colletti V, Mandalà M, Manganotti P, Ramat S, Sacchetto L, Colletti L. Intraoperative observation of changes in cochlear nerve action potentials during exposure to electromagnetic fields generated by mobile phones. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Dec 16, 2010. Ahead of print.

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Two different approaches for evaluating simultaneous exposure to multiple frequencies from base station antenna

The objective of the study was to assess occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in front of a multi-band base station antenna for mobile phone at frequencies of 900, 1800, and 2100 MHz. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was used to validate the antenna model. Also specific absorption rate (SAR) in virtual family male and female models was validated for 10 to 1,000 mm distances from base station. The results indicate that 2100 MHz had the highest spatial-peak SAR averaged over 10 g of tissue. The three frequencies had similar results for whole-body SAR. The authors concluded that a simple summation of spatial-peak SAR maxima at each frequency for combined exposure gave a good estimation.

Kos B, Valič B, Kotnik T, Gajšek P. Exposure assessment in front of a multi-band base station antenna. Bioelectromagnetics. Dec 22, 2010. Ahead of print.

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New application for brain exposure from EMF

The objective of the study was to propose a novel methodology to correctly quantify the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure of specific brain subregions provided by the Talairach hierarchical labeling. Numerical models of humans from the Virtual Family (VF) were labeled with the Talairach–Tournoux atlas. The EMF simulations were done with a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solver then incorporated into the EMF and thermal simulation platform SEMCAD X. The authors noted that the application improves dosimetric assessment of the brain. Examples of the application are dosimetric analysis of brain exposure from cell phones and better design of exposure setups for human studies. It was concluded that Talairach mapping introduces options to study EMF exposure of the central nervous system for a variety of endpoints.

Crespo-Valero P, Christopoulou M, Zefferer M, Christ A, Achermann P, Nikita KS, Kuster N. Novel methodology to characterize electromagnetic exposure of the brain. Phys Med Biol. 56(2):383-96.

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Greater localized exposure measured by figure-8 loop antenna system

The objective of the study was to develop a methodology for exposure using a figure-8 loop antenna to enable localized exposure of a rat head to 1,500 MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) emitted from mobile phones. Estimated specific absorption rate (SAR) was determined in a rat exposed to RF via new exposure methodology. Results indicate that high ratio of SAR averaged over the brain tissue compared to the averaged whole-body SAR. The authors suggest that the figure-8 antenna can measure higher localized exposure than exposure methodologies used in the past.

Arima T, Watanabe H, Wake K, Watanabe S, Masuda H, Taki M, Uno T. Local Exposure System for Rats Head Using Figure-8 Loop Antenna in 1500 MHz Band. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. Jan 6, 2011. Ahead of print.

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Volumetric energy absorption rate (VAR) compared to SAR as RF exposure metric

The objective of the study was to assess which averaged mass (1, 3, 5, 7, or 10 g) and which shape (cube or sphere) is the most appropriate radiofrequency field (RF) exposure metric. The authors also looked at another relevant metric, volumetric energy absorption rate (VAR) using volume averaging and then compared SAR and VAR averaging metrics. Results indicate that in this study VAR is better correlated (although not statistically significant) with a temperature rise than SAR. The authors recommend using VAR because it’s easier to assess. No difference was found for averaging over a cube or a sphere. The best averaging volume is 10 cm3 for VAR and it is 10 g mass for SAR.

McIntosh RL, Anderson V. SAR versus VAR, and the size and shape that provide the most appropriate RF exposure metric in the range of 0.5-6 GHz. Bioelectromagnetics. Jan 12, 2011. Ahead of print.

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Monte Carlo simulation results can be used to find correction factors for personal dosimeters

The objective of the study was to use Monte Carlo simulation and finite difference time domain (FDTD) to get distributions of the electric field strength of a human body model. The field can be a proxy for direct measurements obtained from a personal dosimeter. Eight environment models were used to simulate outdoor and indoor multipath exposures at 450, 900 and 2,100 MHz frequencies. Results of the simulation show that a personal dosimeter within 10-50 mm of the adult or child body model (torso region) will on average underestimate the spatially averaged value of the incident electric field strength by a factor of 0.52 to 0.74 for frequencies of 450, 900 and 2,100 MHz. The authors concluded that their simulation results can be used to find correction factors which would be applied to measurements recorded by body-worn dosimeters.

Iskra S, McKenzie R, Cosic I. Monte Carlo simulations of the electric field close to the body in realistic environments for application in personal radiofrequency dosimetry. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. Jan 17, 2011. Ahead of print.

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No chronic illness in rats due to exposure to RF fields

This study aims to investigate whether one-year long-term simultaneous exposure to CDMA (849 MHz) and W-CDMA (1.95 GHz) radiofrequency fields (RF) would induce chronic illness in rats. No animal died during the 12-month experimental period. No significant alterations in body and organ weights were observed under the simultaneous combined RF exposure. The data did not show any significant alterations based on urinalysis, haematology, blood biochemistry, or histopathology in most of the rats.

Jin YB, Lee HJ, Seon Lee J, Pack JK, Kim N, Lee YS. One-year, simultaneous combined exposure of CDMA and WCDMA radiofrequency electromagnetic fields to rats. Int J Radiat Biol. Dec 21, 2010. Ahead of print.

For more see “Research – laboratory – cancer studies
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Cultured keratinocytes are not affected by electromagnetic fields

This study aims to investigate possible changes in gene expression in normal human epidermal keratinocytes which were subjected to two non-thermal exposure conditions characterized by different amplitudes and durations. The data showed that cultured keratinocytes are not significantly affected by electromagnetic fields (EMF).

Roux D, Girard S, Paladian F, Bonnet P, Lalléchère S, Gendraud M, Davies E, Vian A. Human keratinocytes in culture exhibit no response when exposed to short duration, low amplitude, high frequency (900 MHz) electromagnetic fields in a reverberation chamber. Bioelectromagnetics. Dec 22, 2010. Ahead of print.

For more see “Research – laboratory – skin
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Effects of electric fields on spindle disturbances in cell cycle

This paper investigates whether electrical and/or magnetic field component of electromagnetic field (EMF) can be associated with the effectiveness of the spindle-disturbing potential. The results indicate that cell exposure to electric field strengths of 45 and 90 V/m induces significant spindle disturbances in ana- and telophases of the cell cycle.

Schrader T, Kleine-Ostmann T, Münter K, Jastrow C, Schmid E. Spindle disturbances in human-hamster hybrid (A(L)) cells induced by the electrical component of the mobile communication frequency range signal. Bioelectromagnetics. Dec 22, 2010. Ahead of print.

For more see “Research – laboratory – other – cell cycle progression
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Reproductive effects of radiofrequency fields

This study investigates the effect of free radical formation due to mobile phone radiofrequency field (RF) exposure and its effect on fertility pattern in 70-day-old male Wistar rats (sham exposed and exposed). The authors concluded that RF exposure emitted from mobile phones could potentially affect the spermatozoa. It is suggested that a reduction in GPx and SOD activity and an increase in CAT activity found in this experiment were due to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under radiofrequency field exposure.

Kesari KK, Kumar S, Behari J. Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Wave Exposure from Cellular Phones on the Reproductive Pattern in Male Wistar Rats. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. Jan 15, 2011. Ahead of print.

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Effects of radiofrequency fields on testicular function in rats

This study investigates the effects of a 1.95 GHz electromagnetic field (EMF) on testicular function in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were five week old rats that were divided into 3 groups of 24 animals.  The 1.95-GHz wide-band code division multiple access (W-CDMA) signal was used for whole body exposure for 5 hours per day, 7 days a week for 5 weeks. No abnormalities of sperm motility or morphology and the histological appearance of seminiferous tubules were observed in the experiment.

Imai N, Kawabe M, Hikage T, Nojima T, Takahashi S, Shirai T. Effects on rat testis of 1.95-GHz W-CDMA for IMT-2000 cellular phones. Syst Biol Reprod Med. Jan 5, 2011. Ahead of print.

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Radiofrequency radiation and human cells

This study investigates whether the exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF) may induce aneuploidy in cultured human cells. It was designed to find any induction of genomic instability by GSM-900 MHz after in vitro exposure of human amniotic cells for 24 hours to average-specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.25, 1, 2 and 4 W/kg. The results did not show any in vitro aneuploidogenic effect of RF fields using FISH and were not replicated in this experiment.

Bourthoumieu S, Terro F, Leveque P, Collin A, Joubert V, Yardin C. Aneuploidy studies in human cells exposed in vitro to GSM-900 MHz radiofrequency radiation using FISH. Int J Radiat Biol. Jan 19, 2011. Ahead of print.

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Review of previous findings of human brain and cognition: study design and data analysis evaluation

Kwon MS, Hämäläinen H. Effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields: Critical evaluation of behavioral and neurophysiological studies. Bioelectromagnetics. Dec 22, 2010. Ahead of print.

For more see “Bibliography – review papers – behaviour
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Grigoriev Y. Comments from the Russian group on Repacholi et al. “An international project to confirm soviet era results on immunological and teratological effects of RF field exposure in wistar rats and comments on Grigoriev et al. [2010]”. Bioelectromagnetics. 22 Dec,2010. Ahead of print.

For more see “Research – laboratory – cancer studies
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Systematic review and cognitive performance in humans: no biological mechanism has been identified which mediates the effects on brain function

Regel SJ, Achermann P. Cognitive Performance Measures in Bioelectromagnetic Research - Critical Evaluation and Recommendations. Environ Health. Jan 25, 2011. Ahead of print.

For more see “Bibliography - review papers – behaviour
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Investigation on use of precautionary principle in health risk assessment from EMF

Dämvik M, Johansson O. (2010). Health risk assessment of electromagnetic fields: a conflict between the precautionary principle and environmental medicine methodology. Rev Environ Health. 25(4):325-33.

For more see “Bibliography - review papers – general
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Scientific Panel recognizes that the body of evidence on EMF requires a new approach to protection of public health

Fragopoulou A, Grigoriev Y, Johansson O, Margaritis LH, Morgan L, Richter E, Sage C. (2010). Scientific panel on electromagnetic field health risks: consensus points, recommendations, and rationales. Rev Environ Health. 25(4):307-17.

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