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February 2009

New analysis approach does not provide evidence for any significant association between mobile phone use and brain tumour (glioma) risk where the brain receives most RF energy

A new analysis approach (case-case analysis) was used to determine the risk of brain tumours in mobile phone users from the Finnish INTERPHONE study. This analysis focuses on the region of the brain where RF energy from mobile phones is mostly absorbed. The study included 99 gliomas; cases were those with a tumour within a distance of 4.6 cm from a line to the mouth and ear where mobile phone radiofrequency exposure is suggested. The other cases were considered as the controls (reference group). Slightly more gliomas in mobile phone users than non-users (28% vs. 14%) were within 4.6 cm from the suggested exposure location of mobile phones. The authors conclude that their results indicate collected information on the location of the brain tumour makes it possible to assess the risk in the most heavily exposed region of the brain. Thus, this new approach can evaluate local carcinogenic effects of the RF exposure from mobile phones. Limitations of the study are its small sample size and lack of consideration of field strength and output power. But, a study including a larger sample size is planned.

Hartikka H,Heinävaara S,Mäntylä R, Kähärä V, Kurttio P, Auvinen A. Mobile phone use and location of glioma: A case-case analysis Bioelectromagnetics Jan 13, 2009 Ahead of print.

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New study does not confirm previous results of increased risk of uveal melanoma and regular mobile phone use

The authors tried to replicate results from a previous study indicating a possible elevated risk of uveal melanoma and mobile phone use. The objective of the current case-control study was to determine the possible association of uveal melanoma risk in mobile phone users. The study included 455 cases and 827 controlsand the mobile phone exposure was assessed with a questionnaire. Results indicate that the risk of uveal melanoma was not associated with regular mobile phone use (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5 to 1.0), and the authors also did not find any trend for cumulative measures of exposure. It was concluded that previous results of a positive association could not be replicated in this case-control study.

Stang A, Schmidt-Pokrzywniak A, Lash TL, Lommatzsch PK, Taubert G, Bornfeld N, Jöckel K. Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Uveal Melanoma: Results of the Risk Factors for Uveal Melanoma Case-Control Study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute January 13, 2009 Ahead of print doi:10.1093/jnci/djn441.

For more see “Research – epidemiological – cell phone studies
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Study does not show that measured RF exposure from base stations in Germany were associated with any adverse health effects in 1,326 individuals

The objective of the second phase of a German study was to assess whether radiofrequency field (RF) exposure from base stations was associated with a range of health complaints. A total of 3,526 individuals participated in the survey and completed a questionnaire. The postal questionnaire was used to determine how mobile phone base stations affected their health and symptoms such as sleep disturbances, headaches, health complaints, mental and physical health, and stress. Exposure from mobile phone base stations was directly assessed with a dosimeter measuring multiple frequencies. Health outcomes and RF exposure were analyzed with multiple regression in 1,326 subjects who completed both the questionnaire and exposure measurement. Results indicate no differences were observed for all five health scores obtained from different test in exposed compared to non-exposed subjects. Subjects who were concerned about base stations did not have different well-being scores compared to those who had no base stations concerns. The authors conclude that their study did not show measured RF exposure from base stations were associated with any health complaints.

Berg-Beckhoff G, Blettner M, Kowall B, Breckenkamp J, Schlehofer B, Schmiedel S, Bornkessel C, Reis U, Potthoff P, Schüz J. (2009). Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 2 of a cross-sectional study with measured radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Occup Environ Med 66(2):124-130.

For more see “Research – epidemiological – other studies – general populations
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The action of pulse-modulated GSM radiation increases regional changes in brain activity

The action of the pulse-modulated 900 MHz GSM radiofrequency of mobile phones has been suggested as a physical phenomenon that might have biological effects on the mammalian central nervous system. In this study, GSM-exposed picrotoxin-pretreated rats showed differences in clinical and EEG signs, and in c-Fos expression in the brain, with respect to picrotoxin-treated rats exposed to an equivalent dose of unmodulated radiation.

López-Martín E, Bregains J, Relova-Quinteiro JL, Cadarso-Suárez C, Jorge-Barreiro FJ, Ares-Pena FJ. The action of pulse-modulated GSM radiation increases regional changes in brain activity and c-FOS expression in cortical and subcortical areas in a rat model of picrotoxin-induced seizure proneness. J Neurosci Res Dec 29, 2008 Ahead of print.

For more see “Research – laboratory – brain function
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Radiofrequency radiation at 5 W/kg might enhance chemically induced ROS production and cause secondary DNA damage

The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage at a relatively high specific absorption rate (SAR) value (5 W/kg). The results suggest that 872 MHz continuous waves radiation at 5 W/kg might enhance chemically induced ROS production and thus cause secondary DNA damage.

Luukkonen J, Hakulinen P, Mäki-Paakkanen J, Juutilainen J, Naarala J. Enhancement of chemically induced reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation. Mutat Res 24 Dec 2008 Ahead of print.

For more see “Research – laboratory – other – free oxygen radicals
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Study shows no effect from GSM mobile phones on cortical auditory changes

The mismatch negativity (MMN) is an auditory even-related potential (ERP) component activated by random stimuli. The MMN provides a responsive measure for cortical auditory stimulus feature discrimination. MMN responses to factors such as duration, intensity, frequency, and gap changes were evaluated in 17 adults all together with true and sham GSM mobile phone exposure on either ear for SAR1g of 1.14 W/kg and SAR10g of 0.82 W/kg. An MMN was produced by random stimuli types but its amplitude and latency was not affected by RF exposure from GSM mobile phones. The authors conclude that their results do not indicate GSM mobile phone affects cortical auditory change detection processing measured by the MMN.

Kwon MS, Kujala T, Huotilainen M, Shestakova A, Näätänen R, Hämäläinen H. Preattentive auditory information processing under exposure to the 902 MHz GSM mobile phone electromagnetic field: A mismatch negativity (MMN) study. Bioelectromagnetics Jan 12, 2009 Ahead of print.

For more see “Research – laboratory – other – ear
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Does use of mobile phones at short distances from the ear of the infants should be avoided?

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential hazardous effects of intrauterine (IU) and/or extrauterine (EU) exposure to 1800 MHz (GSM-like) radiofrequency (RF) on the cochlear functions of infant rabbits by measuring distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) response amplitudes. The investigators found that prolonged exposure and hyperthermia related to the power density of applied RF may increase the temperature in the ear canal and affect DPOAE amplitudes. Therefore, the use of mobile phones at short distances from the ear of the infants should be avoided because of the lower thickness of the anatomical structure in infancy.

Budak GG, Muluk NB, Budak B, Oztürk GG, Apan A, Seyhan N. Effects of intrauterine exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on distortion product otoacoustic emissions in infant male rabbits. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol Dec 22, 2008 Ahead of print.

For more see “Research – laboratory – other – ear
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Does radiofrequency radiation affect the fertility and the development of the animals?

The objective of this study is to investigate whether chronic exposure to UMTS at various specific absorption rate (SAR)-values affects the fertility and development of mice over four generations. The results did not show harmful effects of exposure on the fertility and the development of the animals.

Sommer AM, Grote K, Reinhardt T, Streckert J, Hansen V, Lerchl A. (2009). Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (UMTS) on Reproduction and Development of Mice: A Multi-generation Study. Radiat. Res. 171, 89–95.

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Whole-body averaged SAR in an infant model – effect of polarization

The objective of the study was to investigate whether polarization could affect whole-body averaged specific absorption rate in children. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was used in the experiment and the results show that whole-body averaged SAR for plane-wave exposure with vertical electric field is smaller than horizontal only for frequencies tested above 2 GHz.

Hirata A, Ito N, Fujiwara O. Influence of electromagnetic polarization on the whole-body averaged SAR in children for plane-wave exposures. Phys Med Biol. 54(4):N59-N65. January 14, 2009 Ahead of print.

For more see “Research – exposure assessment
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Comprehensive overview of the health effects of cell phone exposure

In this review, the authors discuss the technical features of different types of cell phones and cell phone technologies available worldwide and how they could produce health effects. They review the changes on the cardiovascular system, sleep and cognitive function, general adverse health effects, genotoxicity, neurohormonal secretion, male infertility, and tumour induction. The mechanisms by which cell phones could adversely affect biological systems are explored.

Makker K, Varghese A, Desai NR, Mouradi R, Agarwal A. (2009). Cell phones: modern man’s nemesis? Reprod Biomed Online. 18(1):148-157.

For more see “Bibliography – review papers
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