February 2008

Health effects of mobile phones on EEG alpha waves (neural function)

The research conducted by Croft et al. on the health effect of mobile phones and neural function in humans was intended to demonstrate that “alpha waves” power measured by electroencephalogram (EEG) would increase after mobile phone use when tested against sham exposure (double-blind crossover design). Their results confirmed previous studies of an effect of mobile phone exposure on EEG alpha power, with the increase larger for ipsilateral than contralateral sides.

Croft RJ, Hamblin DL, Spong J, Wood AW, McKenzie RJ, Stough C. The effect of mobile phone electromagnetic fields on the alpha rhythm of human electroencephalogram. Bioelectromagnetics 2008;29( 1):1-10.
For more, see Research - Clinical- EEG
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Comparison of different methodological approaches to simulating exposure conditions from mobile phones.

A comparison between different setups by 3 research groups to simulate exposure conditions of mobile phone use in human volunteer showed, in general, that the setups can only define exposures in a limited region. Exposure to other areas of the cortex was relatively low, and is prone to great variability resulting from the setup, position and local anatomy. It was concluded that studies need to be well designed to simulate exposure from mobile phones, and dosimetric information must be available to compare accurately results from those types of studies.

Boutry CM, Kuehn S, Achermann P, Romann A, Keshvari J, Kuster N. Dosimetric evaluation and comparison of different RF exposure apparatuses used in human volunteer studies. Bioelectromagnetics 2008;29(1):11-19.
For more, see Research – Exposure Assessment
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In-vitro investigation of potential malignant cell transformation from mobile phone base stations.

Low-level radiofrequency fields from mobile phone base stations was tested part of an in-vitro study to assess if RF fields from IMT-2000 mobile phone network could affect malignant transformation or other cellular responses (tumour promotion and co-promotion) in BALB/3T3 cells. Cells were exposed for 6 weeks to 2.1425 GHz W-CDMA and then assessed for any malignancies. The research group concluded that no significant differences were observed between exposed and non-exposed cells (sham) thus the results could not support the hypothesis that exposure to low-level RF fields from base-stations does affect cell transformation.
Hirose H, Suhara T, Kaji N, Sakuma N, Sekijima M, Nojima T, Miyakoshi J. Mobile phone base station radiation does not affect neoplastic transformation in BALB/3T3 cells Bioelectromagnetics (2008);29(1):55-64.
For more, see Research – Laboratory – Cancer studies
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Heat shock proteins expression in rat skin exposed to GSM signals.

The current study was designed to investigate heat shock proteins (HSP) expression, thus cellular stress marker in the skin of hairless rats exposed to GSM-900 and -1800 signals. The experiment was done by exposing rate skin to a single exposure of 0 and 5W/kg 2 hours per day; and 2 hours per day, 5 days of the week for duration of 12 weeks. Results did not show any alteration in HSP either for a single or repeated exposure. It was concluded that GSM signals did not change HSP expression in rat skin.

Sanchez S,  Masuda H, Ruffié G, Poulletier De Gannes F, Billaudel B, Haro E, Lévêque P, Lagroye I, Veyret B. Effect of GSM-900 and -1800 signals on the skin of hairless rats. III: Expression of heat shock proteins International Journal of Radiation Biology (2008); 84(1):61-68.
For more, see Research – Laboratory – Other - Heat Shock Response andResearch – Laboratory – Other - Skin
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Possible apoptosis of rat neurons after exposure to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields.

The objective of the present research was to investigate radiofrequency fields and neuron apoptosis in vitro (rat primary neurons). The neurons were exposed to continuous 900 MHz signal equivalent to a SAR of 2W/Kg for duration of 24 hours. Results of this experiment indicate exposed radiofrequency field neurons had a significantly different rate of apoptosis compared to sham (no exposure). It was concluded that, continuous radiofrequency field exposure of primary rat neurons may induce neuron apoptosis that involves apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) but independent of the Caspase Mitochondrial pathway.

Joubert V, Bourthoumieu S, Leveque P, Yardin C. Apoptosis is Induced by Radiofrequency Fields through the Caspase-Independent Mitochondrial Pathway in Cortical Neurons. Radiat Res (2008); 169, 38–45.
For more, see Research – Laboratory – Other -Cell Death (Apoptosis)”
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Aneuploidy (change in number of chromosomes) resulting from 800 MHz radiofrequency fields in human lymphocyte samples.

The investigation by Mazor and colleagues published in Radiation Research was an in vitro research design on the potential effects of 72 hours of continuous 800 MHz radiofrequency fields on genomic instability of human lymphocyte samples. The specific absorption rates (SARs) for this experiment were 2.9 and 4.1 W/Kg. An increased level of aneuploidy (can lead to a chromosomal abnormality) for some chromosomes (1 and 10; at higher SAR) and (11 and 17; at lower SAR).  It was speculated that multisomy (gaining chromosomes) could be the main effect to the higher aneuploidy. Results also showed that effect of temperature was not responsible of higher aneuploidy thus suggesting non-thermal effect of radiofrequency field to explain the elevated aneuploidy in lymphocytes.

Mazor R, Korenstein-Ilan A, Barbul A, Eshet Y, Shahadi A, Jerby E, Korenstein R. Increased Levels of Numerical Chromosome Aberrations after In Vitro Exposure of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields for 72 Hours. Radiat Res (2008); 169:28–37.
For more, see  “Research – Laboratory – Other - Immune System
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No adverse health effects from radiofrequency fields on neonatal mice exposed to 900 MHz RF.

Tumorigenic effects of radiofrequency (RF) fields were studied on knockout neonatal mice (highly tumour-susceptible model). Mice were either, exposed for 30 minutes twice a day for 5 days to 900 MHz RF with an average SAR of 0.4 W/Kg, or add a sham exposure (no exposure). Results from this experiment indicate no effects of RF as no significant differences in survival rate, on the incidence and histology of cerebellar tumours, on proliferative or promotional effects of preneoplastic lesions (basal cell carcinoma), and on rhadomyosarcomas (common type of cancer of soft tissue like squeletal muscle predominantly found in children) were found between exposed and non-exposed groups. This experiment produced no evidence that GSM RF fields could reduce life or have any tumorigenic effects in neonatal mice.

Saran A, Pazzaglia S, Mancuso M, Rebessi S, Di Majo V, Tanori M, Lovisolo GA, Pinto R, Marino C. Effects of Exposure of Newborn Patched1 Heterozygous Mice to GSM, 900 MHz. Radiat Res (2007) 168;733–740.
For more, see “Research – Laboratory – Cancer Studies
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Review of EMF and children as a vulnerable population and potential application of precautionary measures.

This review examines whether children are especially vulnerable to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (EMF). Results from different frequency and type of exposure such as static fields, low and high-frequency EMF are presented. Possible thermal and non-thermal effects of EMF are discussed. Discussion on non-thermal effects which are poorly reproduced and no physiological or pathogenic mechanism have been proposed; and population-based studies like epidemiological studies not reproducing clear and convincing results for negative adverse health effects are presented in this review. The concept of the precautionary principle for children environmental health is discussed thoroughly.

Otto M, Ernst von Mühlendahl K, Electromagnetic fields (EMF): Do they play a role in children's environmental health (CEH)? Int J Hyg Enviro Health (2007) 10;635-644.
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