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Décembre 20
08

Case-control study in Germany did not show any elevated risks of childhood leukemia from radiofrequency fields radio and TV broadcast transmitters

Merzenich et al conducted a case-control study in Germany to assess whether radiofrequency fields from high-power radio and TV broadcast towers would be associated with childhood leukemia. Participants were 1,959 cases (0-14 years) and 5,848 controls and three controls were matched for each case for age, gender, and transmitter location. Exposure was estimated with a field strength prediction program. Odds ratios for all types of leukemia was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.67-1.11) when comparing highest to lowest exposed quantiles. Odds ratios for all types of leukemia was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.65-1.67) when comparing children living within 2 km of nearest broadcast tower  with those living further than 10 km but less than 15 km. The authors conclude that the study did not provide any evidence that exposure to broadcast towers would produce any elevated risk of childhood leukemia.

Merzenich H, Schmiedel S, Bennack S, Bruggemeyer H, Philipp J, Blettner M, Schuz J. Childhood Leukemia in Relation to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in the Vicinity of TV and Radio Broadcast Transmitters. American Journal of Epidemiology 168(10) Ahead of print October 3, 2008 DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwn230.

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Study results indicate possible biological effect of GSM cellular phone exposure on response times measured by spatial working memory task
.

The study was designed to examine the effects on cognitive functions of radiofrequency field exposure from GSMmobile phones. Healthy right-handed male subjects (48) were recruited and participated in a spatial memory task while response times and accuracy of the responses were noted. They were divided into 3 groups: left-side exposure of the head, right-side, or sham-exposure. Results of the study are that the average response times for right-hand task when the left-side of the head was exposed were significantlylonger compared to right-side and sham-exposure groups. Exposure duration along with responding hand and side of exposure could have an important role in radiofrequency fields’ effects on cognitive performance.

Luria R, Eliyahu I, Hareuveny R, Margaliot M, Meiran N. Cognitive effects of radiation emitted by cellular phones: The influence of exposure side and time. Bioelectromagnetics. Ahead of print November 17, 2008. DOI 10.1002/bem.20458.

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Survey in Germany on mobile phone base stations and risk perception and associated self-reported health complaints

Blettner et al conducted a cross-sectional study in Germany to look at the distance of residence from mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception and its possible association with reported health complaints. The first phase of the study carried out within a large survey included 30,047 persons who self-reported (list of 38 health complaints) how they thought base stations were affecting their health. Predictors of health complaints such as distance from base stations and risk perception were assessed by a regression model. In this study, results indicate that 18.7% of subjects were concerned about adverse health effects from exposure to radiofrequency fields from base stations and 10.3% attributed their personal health effects from being exposed to the towers. Analyses performed indicate that those who are concerned or think their health effects is due to base stations, and those who live within 500 meters of a base station reported more health complaints than others. The authors conclude that a substantial proportion of Germans are concerned about adverse health effects from exposure to base stations.

Blettner M, Schlehofer B, Breckenkamp J, Kowall B, Schmiedel S, Reis U, Potthoff P, Schuez J, Berg-Beckhoff G. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: Phase 1: A population-based cross-sectional study in Germany. Occup Environ Med. Ahead of print November 18, 2008.

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Mobile phone use is not associated with blood-brain barrier dysfunction in humans

The authors used a cross-sectional design to investigate whether protein levels such as serum S100B, a marker of blood-brain barrier dysfunction, would be elevated in frequent mobile phone users. A questionnaire was used to assess mobile phone use and blood samples were taken to measure S100B in 1,000 adults. The results obtained after the different analyses were not statistically significant other than the analysis of latency for UMTSuse only in men. Total mobile and cordless phone use over time and use of mobile phone the same day the blood sample was taken both did not produce significant odds ratio (0.8 and 1.1, respectively). The authors conclude the results of the study did not confirm that either long or short-term use of mobile phones affected blood-barrier integrity. Larger studies and longer follow-up period are needed to confirm these findings.

Söderqvist F, Carlberg M, Hardell L. Use of wireless telephones and serum S100B levels: A descriptive cross-sectional study among healthy Swedish adults aged 18-65 years. Sci Total Environ. Ahead of print November 4, 2008.

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Radiofrequency proxy exposure (distance) considered a good exposure metric for large epidemiological studies on exposure from television and radio broadcast transmitters

The objective of the study was to validate electric field strength measurements as an exposure metric. The validation of the proxy exposure was made in a German case-control study investigating a possible association between radiofrequency (RF) fields emitted from television and radio broadcast transmitters and childhood leukemia. A total of 850 transmitter sites were used to measure RF and compare the values to the calculated exposure (proxy) determined by the distance from the personal residence and a transmitter site. Results indicate that the distance from a transmitter site had a lower agreement for measured RF exposure than calculated exposure. Distance was less informative when studies included more than one transmitter with many frequency bands. Although the analyses indicated a probable exposure misclassification, a study including 2,000 cases and 6,000 controls could still find a true odds ratio (OR) of 1.4 at 80% power. The authors conclude that the calculated exposure metric for RF is appropriate when used in large studies.

Schmiedel S, Brüggemeyer H, Philipp J,Wendler J, Merzenich H, Schüz J. An evaluation of exposure metrics in an epidemiologic study on radio and television broadcast transmitters and the risk of childhood leukemia. Bioelectromagnetics Ahead of print November 21, 2008. DOI 10.1002/bem.20460  

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Median individual exposure of children and adolescents to radio frequency fields measured by personal dosimetry was about 20% of the ICNIRP reference level guideline.

The authors investigated the possible association between exposure to mobile phone networks and well-being in 1,498 children and 1,524 adolescents with a personal dosimeter (ESM-140). Data on well-being was collected during a personal interview and acute symptoms were noted 3 times per day. The exposure was measured for 24 hours in 3 frequency ranges. Results were published as exposure levels while being awake as mean percentage of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Measurements indicate that median exposure of children and adolescents to radiofrequency fields was 0.18 and 0.19 of the ICNIRP reference level respectively. The authors conclude that personal dosimetry is proven to be an accepted tool in studies of exposure from mobile phone frequencies.

Thomas S, Kuhnlein A, Heinrich S, Praml G, von Kries R, Radon K. Exposure to mobile telecommunication networks assessed using personal dosimetry and well-being in children and adolescents: the German MobilEe-study. Environ Health 7(1):54 Ahead of print November 4, 2008.

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Laboratory study does not find evidence of induction of cellular responses after 1763 MHz radiofrequency field exposure.

The objective of the study was to investigate whether radiofrequency field exposure emitted from mobile phones would induce cellular damage in mouse auditory hair cells. The cells were exposed to 1763 MHz CDMA network for 24 and 48 hours at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 20 W/kg. Changes in cell cycle, DNA damage, stress response, and gene expression were all measured after exposure but did not appear to occur in cells. Alteration in gene expression was noted in only 0.09% of genes. The authors could not find any significant changes in a number of key cellular responses in auditory hair cells exposed at a SAR much higher than the safety limits.

Huang TQ, Lee MS, Oh EH, Kalinec F, Zhang BT, Seo JS, Park WY. (2008). Characterization of biological effect of 1763 MHz radiofrequency exposure on auditory hair cells. Int J Radiat Biol 84(11): 909-915.

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Radiofrequency fields emitted by cellular phones have no adverse effects on any reproductive and embryo-toxic parameters.

The objective is to study whether gestational exposure to an radiofrequency (RF) field targeting the head region, similar to that from cellular phones, might affect embryogenesis in rats. There were no differences in maternal body weight gain in all groups. No adverse effects of RF field exposure were observed on any reproductive and embryo-toxic parameters. No adverse effects of maternal exposure to RF fields targeting the head area and embryogenesis were showed.

Ogawa K, Nabae K, Wang J, Wake K, Watanabe SI, Kawabe M, Fujiwara O, Takahashi S, Ichihara T, Tamano S, Shirai T. Effects of gestational exposure to 1.95-GHz W-CDMA signals for IMT-2000 cellular phones: Lack of embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in rats. Bioelectromagnetics Ahead of print November 17, 20 DOI 08. 10.1002/bem.20456  

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No differences in either HSC70 or HSP70 protein expression were observed after exposure to radiofrequency fields.

The main objective is to study HSP70 gene expression and protein expression in human trophoblast cells after exposure to 1.8 GHz. There were no significant differences in cell viability between all groups. No major differences in either HSC70 or HSP70 protein expression were observed between radiofrequency exposed and sham exposed samples. The results show that the expression analysis for multiple transcripts can identify slight changes that would not be detected at the protein level.

Franzellitti S, Valbonesi P, Contin A, Biondi C, Fabbri E. (2008). HSP70 expression in human trophoblast exposed to different 1.8 GHz mobile phone signals. Radiat Res 170(4):488-497.

For more see “Research – laboratory – other – heat shock response
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No effect of in vivo exposure to GSM-modulated radiofrequency fields on bone marrow cells.

The objective is to study the functional ability of bone marrow cells from mice exposed to GSM signals to colonize lymphatic organs generating mature T cells and B lymphocytes and rescue lethally X-irradiated mice from death. The results showed no effect of in vivo exposure to GSM-modulated radiofrequency fields on the ability of bone marrow precursor cells to colonize lymphoid organs and to differentiate in phenotypically and functionally mature T cells and B lymphocytes.

Prisco M G, Nasta F, Rosado MM, Lovisolo GA, Marino C,Pioli C. (2008). Effects of GSM-Modulated Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields on Mouse Bone Marrow Cells. Radiat. Res. 170, 803–810.

For more see “Research – laboratory – other  – immune system
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Current state of scientific findings and consensus on research priorities to identify risk factors for brain tumors: Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium

Bondy ML, Scheurer ME, Malmer B, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Davis FG, Il'yasova D, Kruchko C, McCarthy BJ, Rajaraman P, Schwartzbaum JA, Sadetzki S, Schlehofer B, Tihan T, Wiemels JL, Wrensch M, Buffler PA, On behalf of the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium. (2008). Brain tumor epidemiology: Consensus from the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium. Cancer 113(S7):1953-1968.

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Letter and response
Vini G. Khurana; and Gretchen Vogel Cell Phone and DNA Story Overlooked Studies Science 28 November 2008 322(5906):1325  DOI: 10.1126/science.322.5906.1325a

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