Terms used in wireless technology
Air interface: In a mobile phone network, the radio transmission path between the base station and the mobile terminal
Analogue cellular: Original cellular technology used in the transmission of speech, operating as an analogue system at 900 MHz.
Advanced mobile phone system (AMPS): The first generation was the analog mobile phone system standard that uses FDMA transmission technology (Frequency Division Multiple Access).
Antenna: Device designed to radiate or receive electromagnetic energy.
APC: Adaptive power control. System used to control mobile phones and base stations in order to ensure that the radiated power does not exceed the minimum consistent with high quality communication. The system effectively operates to reduce average radiated powers.
Bandwidth: A term meaning both the width of a transmission channel in terms of Hertz and the maximum transmission speed in bits per second that it will support.
Basic restriction: Restrictions on exposure to electromagnetic fields that are based on established health effects and biological considerations.
Bluetooth: A low power, short range wireless technology designed to provide a replacement for the serial cable. It can connect a wide range of personal, professional and domestic devices such as laptop computers and mobile phones together wirelessly.
Base station: Facility providing transmission and reception for radio systems. For macrocells, the infrastructure comprises either roof- or mast-mounted antennas and an equipment cabinet or container. For smaller microcells and picocells, the antennas and other equipment may be housed in a single unit.
CDMA: Code division multiple access that encodes signals to a number of users, so that all of these users cab simultaneously use a single, wide frequency band. Each user's handset decodes the information for that user, but cannot access information for any other user.
Cell/cellular: A "cell" in the context of mobile phone technology is the area of geographical coverage from a base station. A cell site may sectorize its antennas to service several cells from one location cell site. The facility housing the transmitters/receivers, the antennas and associated equipment
Continuous wave (CW): Successive oscillations which are identical under steady-state conditions (an unmodulated electromagnetic wave).
Digital cellular: Technology introduced in the 1990s
as a method of transmitting speech and data. Offers increased security,
and technical advantages with low powered phones.
Dual Band: The capability of cellular infrastructure elements and handsets to work across two frequency bands, usually the 900MHz and 1800MHz bands. The capability to seamlessly handover between the two bands offers operators major capacity gains.
Effective radiated power (ERP): Power supplied to the
antenna multiplied by the gain of the antenna in that direction relative
to a half-wave dipole.
Electric field:The regions surrounding an electric charge, in which the magnitude and direction of the force on a hypothetical test charge is defined at any point.
Far-field zone: The space beyond an imaginary boundary around an antenna. The boundary marks the beginning where the angular field distribution is essentially independent of the distance from the antenna. In this zone, the field has a predominantly plane-wave character.
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA): A transmission technique where the assigned frequency band for a network is divided into sub-bands which are allocated to a subscriber for the duration of their calls
Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD): An electromagnetic modeling techniques. It is implemented in software, and since it is a time-domain technique it can cover a wide frequency range with a single simulation run.
Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD): An electromagnetic
modeling techniques. It is implemented in software, and since it is
a time-domain technique it can cover a wide frequency range with a
single simulation run.
Handoff: The transfer of control of a cellular phone call in progress from one cell to another, without any discontinuity.
ICNIRP: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, an independent scientific body that has produced an international set of guidelines for public and occupational exposure to radio frequencyfields.
IMT-2000: International Mobile Telecommunications-2000. The family of third generation technologies approved by the ITU. IMT-DS, a direct sequence WCDMA FDD solution IMT-TC, a WCDMA TDD solution IMT-MC, a multicarrier solution developed from cdma2000 IMT-SC, a single carrier solution developed from IS-136/UWC-136 IMT-FT, a TDMA/TDD solution derived from DECT.
Megahertz (MHz): a unit of frequency equal to one million Hertz
Near-field zone: A volume of space generally close to an antenna in which the fields do not have a substantially plane-wave character, but vary considerably from point to point.
Occupational exposure: Exposure to electromagnetic fields during work that are experiences by people having appropriate knowledge about EMF.
Radiation (electromagnetic): The emission or transfer of energy through space in the form of electromagnetic waves.
RF device: A device which generates and/or utilizes RF energy.
Reverberation chamber: An environment for
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing and other electromagnetic
Third generation: Next evolution of mobile phone technology,
based on UMTS and expected to result in widespread use of video phones
and access to multimedia information.
WCDMA: Wideband Code Division Multiple Access, a 3rd generation technology for wireless communication.