Erdreich LS, Van Kerkhove MD, Scrafford CG, Barraj L, et al. (2007):

The authors' objective in this study was to measure environmental, behavioral, and engineering factors affecting the RF power output of GSM cell phones (1900 MHz) during operation. They used software-modified phones (SMPs) that recorded power output settings. Volunteers were recruited from 3 USA areas - Central New Jersey, New York City, and San Francisco. The subjects were asked to log information about each call made during a 5-day period. 

The largest factor affecting the energy output was study area, followed by user movement and location (inside or outside), use of a hands-free device, and urbanicity. Although some highly statistically significant differences were observed, the effects on average energy output were usually less that 50 %.

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