Krause CM, Pesonen M, Bjornberg C Haarala, Hamalainen H (2007):

These authors continue the series of studies they have reported on the effects of RFR on EEG oscillatory responses and cognitive function (Koivisto 2000a,b; Haarala 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007; Krause 2000a,b,c, 2004). They employed an auditory and a visual memory task. Their subjects were healthy young males. Thirty-six subjects participated in each task, in two separate experiments. They were exposed to a 902 MHz electromagnetic field from a signal generator and a linear power amplifier, connected to the antenna of a dummy Nokia phone. In continuous wave condition (CW) 0.25W power was created, while in pulse modulation (PM) the mean power was 0.25 W. Each subject was exposed at weekly intervals to either the CW or the PM condition, or to sham exposure. The SAR averaged over 10 g of tissue was 0.738 W/kg in the RFR exposures. The exposure was done over each hemisphere in turn. The design was double-blind, and was counterbalanced as far as the exposure condition and the exposed hemisphere were concerned. The subjects performed a series of cognitive function tasks during the exposure. The tasks were performed twice during each session, with the laterality of exposure being changed for the second set of tasks.  

There were no statistically significant effects on the cognitive function tasks, either between CW and sham, PM and sham CW and PM, or between hemispheres in any of the combinations.

There were several statistically significant findings in the EEG responses. In the auditory task during encoding, slightly greater 8-10 Hz ERS values were seen during PM, while in the recognition phase smaller ~8 Hz responses were seen, as compared with CW exposure. During sham exposure in encoding, greater ~8-10Hz values were seen during left-side exposure than during right-side. Also during CW exposure, greater ~10-15 ERS responses were seen in encoding during right-sided exposure than left.

In the visual memory task, differences were seen in the EDS/ERS values. Greater ~8-12 Hz ERD values were seen during the PM than the CW exposure.

The authors state:
                "The effects on the EEG were, however, varying, unsystematic and inconsistent with previous reports. We conclude that the effects of EMF on brain oscillatory responses may be subtle, variable and difficult to replicate for unknown reasons".

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